Monthly Archives: August 2015

Some Ideas To Construct A Cheap Gaming Computer

High performance video gaming computer systems can be rather pricey and also if you’re like lots of people you won’t have an extra few thousand lying around for your new pc gaming develop. The following 3 suggestions offered in this short article could help you to minimize your spendings on your spending plan custom-made gaming COMPUTER. Keep in mind, be a smart, patient customer, not a rash one.

1. Reuse Old Parts

The initial pointer to constructing an inexpensive gaming computer is reuse. You must attempt scavenging for components as long as you can. Lots of older second-hand parts that are still fit will be fine for your computer system, thinking you’re not interested in constructing a brand-new machine.

If you have an older computer existing around, strip out all the valuable components. You could have the ability to recycle components such as the saggy drive, CD-ROM drive, screen, key-board, computer mouse, graphics card, sound card, and also potentially even the situation. This will leave you with simply the core parts to buy, the CPU, motherboard, RAM, and hard disk drive.

2. Watch For The ‘Sweet Spot’ In Market

If you don’t really want the very latest high-performing elements because they are too pricey, you could look for what’s called the ‘pleasant place’ in the marketplace. An element is stated to be in the wonderful area when that certain part has actually gone through a current price drop/s yet still carries out at a degree equivalent to that of the high-end offereings. Our custom budget video gaming build examples consist of the current elements in the pleasant area that can help you with selecting the very best worth parts for your very own build.

Simply puts, it’s a part that is currently considereded high worth with great performance for the money. Also, take note of upcoming launches of brand-new components. The cost of existing items will generally drop before and/or after such brand-new elements are released on the marketplace. Timing your purchases has the potential to save you some respectable cash.

3. Look around For Components

To get the very best deals on your elements you must shop around. This appears evident, yet very few people actually do it. Do not buy impulsively. Instead, be an informed and smart purchaser. Also, try to compare costs from various suppliers. If you remain in no hurry to build your computer, contrast rates over a couple of weeks. This will help you spot the actual deals when they come.

How to Make a Quick 10% to 20% When the Market Crashes

August 27, 2015  –  By

Have you ever gotten into an argument or fight with someone who goes from calm and rational to nuclear in an instant? It’s scary.

In my life, the few scraps I’ve gotten into took the typical course. A heated debate leads to name-calling and threats. Finally, one guy pushes the other and it’s on.

But I’ve always walked away when the party with whom I’m having a simple disagreement explodes out of nowhere. That person is unstable, and you never know what’s going to happen.

That’s how the market felt on Monday.

It was not an orderly decline. If it was, it still wouldn’t have felt good – but it wouldn’t have been as downright scary.

The sudden plunge, attributed to the slowdown in China, was exacerbated by high-frequency traders’ computers dumping shares all at once.

It left the market out of control as there was no human to analyze what was going on and figure out a way to restore the market to order.

In the old days, when specialists still traded on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange, if there were an overwhelming number of sell orders, the specialist might delay the opening of the stock until they were able to make an orderly market.

That doesn’t mean the stock wouldn’t plummet or that crashes could be entirely avoided, but it would eliminate these computer-caused flash crashes that we’ve seen a few times over the last several years.

It also didn’t help that many of the online brokers were down or impaired during the frenetic trading of the morning. I know that I was still getting very slow data even in the afternoon.

How to Handle a Crash

[Earlier in the week], in Wealthy Retirement, I outlined several things you should do when markets tank. These included sticking to your trailing stops (as Matthew Carr advised yesterday). I can’t tell you how many emails I receive from readers who think it’s better to abandon their stops during crashes because “the market always comes back.”

It often does bounce the next day. But stops are a tool to manage risk. The last thing you want to do in a crash is ignore risk management. You could end up losing a lot more than you ever expected.

Protecting your capital is vital when markets crash. But…

What if you could make a quick 10% or 20% when they do?

Josh Brown, who writes The Reformed Broker blog, recently discussed a unique – albeit speculative – way to capitalize on the panic of a crashing market. When markets behave like they did Monday morning, put ridiculously low buy limit orders in and see if you get filled.

For example, say you were interested in biotech giant Celgene (Nasdaq: CELG), which closed Friday at $119.05. You see the market is in an all-out panic on Monday morning, so you put in a buy order 20% below Friday’s close at $95.

You might think to yourself, there’s no way that bid will get hit…

On Monday, Celgene opened at $104.28. It then swiftly fell to a low of $92.98 as the computers and panic drove the market lower. Your $95.25 bid would have been filled and you’d have owned the stock 20% below Friday’s close, with no change in the company’s fundamentals.

When Celgene quickly bounced back and closed at $113.38, you would have been sitting on a 19% gain – all in just a few hours.

Starbucks (Nasdaq: SBUX) is another example. The stock closed at $52.84 on Friday. If you put a bid in 20% lower at $42.27, you probably would have gotten filled, as the stock bottomed at $42.07. It closed at $50.34 on Monday – another 19% gain.

There is nothing magical about the number 20%. I’m just using that as an example of a big discount to the closing price of a stock. You may decide 10% or 25% is better for you.

The important thing to remember is that you should use this strategy only with stocks that you’re happy to own even if prices fall further. Additionally, be aware that in a crash, stocks can in fact go lower.

Just because your stock is down 20% when you buy it doesn’t mean it can’t fall 40% on the day/week/year.

In fact, sometimes crashes are only the beginning of down moves. So even though you’re getting a 20% discount, you could still lose money in a bear market.

But I like this technique, particularly for some dividend payers that I’ve had my eye on. Imagine if you bought Verizon (NYSE: VZ) when it was down 10% yesterday. You’d now be earning a 5.3% yield. Or you could have gotten a 3% yield on JPMorgan (NYSE: JPM) if you had bought it when it was down 10%.

Just be careful; this strategy is not for the timid. But if you’re willing to own a stock lower, even if it continues downward, you might find yourself up a quick 10% or 20% by putting out ridiculous bids that you think will never get hit.

Good investing,

Marc

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How to inspire community participation, motivating and attracting volunteers toward a cause

“Life’s most urgent question is: What are you doing for others?” – Martin Luther King, Jr.
YALI1
Join us for a #YALICHAT with YALI Network’s Online Course instructor, Jeff Franco, on the benefits of volunteerism, how to inspire community participation, and motivating and attracting volunteers toward a cause.

WHAT: #YALICHAT with Jeff Franco on leadership through service
WHEN: Tuesday, August  25 – Thursday, August 27
WHERE: Post your questions on the YALI Network Facebook page

Jeff Franco is vice president and executive director of City Year Washington, DC, a nonprofit organization whose teams of diverse young adults commit to a year of full-time service helping  students stay in school and on track to graduate. Since joining the organization in 2008, he has quadrupled the number of students and schools served, doubled the size of the staff and more than doubled the organization’s fundraising. He has led the development and implementation of a strategic plan that will again grow City Year’s size and impact to reach at least half of the students who drop out of school in Washington, DC.

Jeff will be hosting a Facebook chat to personally engage with YALI Network members and answer your questions. Log onto the YALI Network Facebook page anytime betweenAugust 25th and August 27th to post your questions, read Jeff’s responses and be part of the conversation. You can get ready for the event by watching Jeff’s YALI Network Online Course lessons “Attracting and Motivating Volunteers” and “Inspiring Community Participation.”

Don’t miss out on this exciting opportunity to gain insight from a talented and successful civic leader and community organizer!

P.S. Be sure to read Jeff’s guest blog post “What are the Benefits of Service to a Greater Cause?” to get an idea about what questions to ask him during his #YALICHAT!

Continuation of My ancestor’s history from the ‪‎African_Great_Lakes‬ during the reign of the Sultan Tibe

DEDICATION TO MY CHILDREN – FAHD & MOH’D

From I, who is a descendant of Higna Pirusa Clan. – A Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan – 16th Century Reign of African Great Lakes!        A fascinating history of my ancestors …

The story from the #African_Great_Lakes that shook the Sunni Muslim dynasties during the reign of the Sultan Tibe, who was the Head of Confederation which covered most of the Grande Comore/Ngazija island.  Presumably the story of Sultan Tibé Mougné M’Kou (1813-1875), which started from Patte Island, gives an idea of what were the reigns of his predecessors. Importantly, it gives me an idea of, and able to peek into the past lives of my ancestors and know where I came from

Patte Island and the archaelogical sites in Kenya Siyu_Fort,_Pate_IslandPate4Pate3Pate2

 

 

 

 

 

(Patte) Pate Island is the name of both a town and an island. Pate’s history under (European) foreign occupation began  with the Portugues in 1498. When the  Portugese established a customs house on Pate Island and imposed a tax on trade, the residents rebelled, first briefly in 1637. And then again in 1660, 1678, 1680 and 1687. Each uprising proved more difficult for the weakening Portuguese to quell. Combined forces from Pate and Oman finally drove the Portuguese off the East African coast in 1698, after a three year siege of their stronghold on Mombasa, Fort Jesus during which time the Ya’rubah(Y’arub) dynasty was ruling in Oman and Sultan bin Sayf al-Ya’rubi had defeated and took Muscat(Masqat) forts from the Portuguese. (Africana, The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, Second Edition, Pate Island pg354).

Tracing the Archaeological background of my ancestors Higna Pirusa Clan in Patte, it will seem that the male figures who established the Dynasty there were from Nabahan Dynasty. These particular Nabahans from Pate claimed to have come from (Sham)Iraq/Iran or Syria but Archaeological findings trace them coming from Muscat (Muslim Societies in Africa pg215). These Nabahan members are from the Yaruba Dynasty.   (Y’Aruba) tribe is said to be related to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

Nabahans dynasty ruled much of Oman in 1154CE to 1406CE, at this time Oman was under the Abassid dynasty replacing the Umayyads 750CE.  The Capital is moved from Syria to Iraq; election of al-Julandi ibn Mas’ud as first Ibadi Imam in Oman establishes first independent dynasty of Oman, which lasts until 1435CE. From 661CE to 750CE Umayyad Dynasty ruled from Damascus; expansion of the Islamic empire in North Africa and Spain in the west and into Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia in the east.  Between 1435CE and 1624CE Oman was ruled by a series of elected Imams who do not establish rule by one family; until the Y’Aruba family established dynasty in order to deal with atrocity they were facing from the Portuguese.

1624CE  to 1741CE  Ya’rubah(Y’arub) dynasty was established in Oman. Sultan bin Sayf al-Ya’rubi takes Muscat(Masqat) forts from the Portuguese and also help Pate Island to drove the Portuguese off the cost of East Africa.  Al Bu Saidi dynasty ruling of the present day Oman was established in 1749CE, after Sayyid’s BuSaidi family had supplanted the previous Y’Aruba dynasty for the control of Oman.

The Mazrui family were very angry because  Al BuSaidi’s family supplanted Y’Aruba dynasty and they expected to take on the coast of East Africa. They broke away from Oman and contested Sayyid’s choices for learders of coastal Swahili towns; thus when Mazrui family tried to capture cities like Lamu and Pate which were vassals of Oman, but Oman’s strong hold over the Swahili coast drove out a pro-Mazrui  government in the city of Pate and Sayyid’s forces captured the island of Pemba as well in 1823 from Mazrui supporters.

(Dictionary of African Biography, E.K. Akyeampong & H.L GatesJr Vol.6 pg 302).  (Sebastian Maisel, John A. Shoup, An Encyclopedia of Life in the Arab States, Volume 1 and 2, Chronology)

We will trace a portion of the story through different views and pieces of information.

From the Anjouan history- their view of the Grande Comore and the sultans on the Comoros    They saw the political tradition of the Grande-Comore to be the opposite of that of Anjouan, and typically feudal.

Our story started from Pate Island in Kenya where a Son of a prince banished from the Island of Patte in 18th/19th century, grows in Anjouan, married a daughter of Sultan Alaoui 1st, of which he had his elder son Saïd M’Kou. Succeeded in capturing Moroni and Iconi which he drove the Sultan Bamba Ouma, and proclaimed himself Sultan of Bambao. Fey Foumou was his brother-in-law, Boina Foumou was his father in law. So now we know who captured Aicha and married her off to MussaFumu of which in the end of the Sultanates reign; it will seem that Mussa Fumu was the Greater Sultan Tibe among all of the Sultans in my ancestry; especially to me he was.
He was a very powerful and stronger ruler among all the Sultanates on the Comoros, because he would not give in to either French or Arabs to the end. He didn’t want to loose the Comoro Island but in the end he did.
In 1885 Said Ali, the “Black Sultan” gave Leon Humblot (French Exploiter) the “White Sultan” a large concession covering as much lands as he could exploit (in fact the whole island) Humblot became the real ruler of the island it was only in 1912 that he lost his last administrative powers.
After most of the Sultanates were defeated in fighting this deal, they submitted to Sultan Ali Said. At this time rivalry between Ngazija’s two largest sultanates had become civil war. France was supporting Sa’id Ali, Sultan of Bambao, against his rival Mas Fumu of Itsandra. (Musa bin Fehem called Msa Fum by the natives was the maternal cousin to Ali). Shaikh Kari persuaded Sultan Barghash to send Nyamwezi troops in support of Msa Fumu, but to no avail: after a seven-month siege of Itsandra, during which many died of starvation, Msa Fumu was captured by his enemies and strangled, and many of those who had been loyal to him fled overseas. Numbers of the Ngazija aristocrats, according to an informant of Heepe’s in 1912 (1920: 89-93) went to Zanzibar.http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/104/1/Shepherd_The_Comorians_in_Kenya_.pdf

1154-1749 Nabahans/Y’Aruba dynasty of Oman
1749CE Oman was established, after Sayyid’s BuSaidi family had supplanted the previous Y’Aruba dynasty for the control of Oman.
At this time, the Mazrui family were very angry and unhappy because Al BuSaidi’s family supplanted Y’Aruba and they expected to take on the coast of East Africa. They broke away from Oman and contested Sayyid’s choices for learders of coastal Swahili towns; thus when Mazrui family tried to capture cities like Lamu and Pate which were vassals of Oman, but Oman’s strong hold over the Swahili coast drove out a pro-Mazrui government in the city of Pate and Sayyid’s forces captured the island of Pemba as well in 1823 from Mazrui supporters. (Sebastian Maisel, John A. Shoup, An Encyclopedia of Life in the Arab States, Volume 1 and 2, Chronology)

According to Ibuni Saleh 1936 Short History of the Comorians in Zanzibar pg 8
“We have an authentic record that in the end of the 17th Century, Imam Seif bin Sultan, the son of Imam Sultan bin Seif who in 1651 captured Muscat from the Portuguese, then sovereign Lord of East African Dominions known as “Caid el Ardh” who finally drove away the Portugues from the East Coast sought alliance with the Sultan of the Comoro Islands. The Sultan of the Comores at that time one Seyyid Ahmed bin Saleh answered by a letter exhibited at the Zanzibar Museum)”

At the time of Sultan Ahmed Said (1793 + 1875), there was a sultanates federation under the authority of a supreme leader: the thibe sultan. The federation included twelve provinces administered by a sultan. The Sultan Ahmed Said, the Sultanate of Bambao exercised suzerainty over five provincial sultanates and the Sultan rival, Moussa Foumou Sultanate Itsandra exercised his on three provincial sultanates. The provinces of BADJINI and DOMBA were autonomous

The story from the #Horn_of_Africa and #African_Great_Lakes that shook the Sunni Muslim dynasties during the reign of the Sultan Tibe

From I, who is a descendant of Higna Pirusa Clan. –   A Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan  from 16th Century Reign of African Great Lakes! (oraled as Inya Fombwai-Mwatsa) –

DEDICATION TO MY CHILDREN – FAHD & MOH’D

Tracing the Archaeological background of Higna Pirusa Clan who reigned the Comoro islands during the 17th and 19th centuries.

In the course of the 16th century several Sultanates were established on the island of Grande Comore. Most of them were united in a very loose confederation, covering the largest part of the island. At this period of time, The Nabhani dynasty and the Ya’aruba dynasty have control of Oman.

The Clan of Higna Moitsa Pirusa who reign from Itsandra to Mitsamihuli, Washili, Mbude to Hamehame were a descendants from The Nabhani dynasty (or Nabahina dynasty), members of the Bani Nabhan family, were rulers of Oman from 1154 until 1624, when the Yaruba dynasty took power.

There are records of personal visits by Nabhani rulers to Ethiopia, Zanzibar, the Lamu Archipelago of what is now Kenya, and Persia. The al-Nabhani dynasty of Pate Island in the Lamu Archipelago claimed descent from the Omani dynasty.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabhani_dynasty

Higna Pirusa Clan started in Patte Island and the male figure in this clan was from Nabahan Dynasty. These particular Nabahans from Pate claimed to have come from (Sham)Iraq/Iran or Syria but Archaeological findings trace them coming from Muscat (Muslim Societies in Africa pg215). These Nabahan members are from the Yaruba Dynasty. Yaruba (Y’Aruba) tribe is said to be related to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

The Yaruba dynasty (also spelled Ya’Aruba or Ya’arubi) were rulers of Oman between 1624 and 1742, holding the title of Imam. They expelled the Portuguese from coastal strongholds in Muscat and united the country. They improved agriculture, expanded trade and built up Oman into a major maritime power. Their forces expelled the Portuguese from East Africa north of Mozambique and established long-lasting settlements on Zanzibar, Mombasa and other parts of the coast. The dynasty lost power during a succession struggle that started in 1712 and fell after a prolonged period of civil war. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaruba_dynasty

In 1719 Muhanna bin Sultan was brought into Rustaq Fort by stealth and proclaimed Imam. He was unpopular, and the next year was deposed and killed by his cousin Ya’arub bin Bal’arab. Ya’arub bin Bal’arab set up Saif bin Sultan II as the Imam and proclaimed himself Custodian. Saif bin Sultan II was undisputed ruler, but he led a self-indulgent life, which turned the tribes against him. Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi was elected Imam in 1744.

According to Ibuni Saleh 1936 Short History of the Comorians in Zanzibar pg8  “We have an authentic record that in the end of the 17th Century, Imam Seif bin Sultan, the son of Imam Sultan bin Seif who in 1651 captured Muscat from the Portuguese, then sovereign Lord of East African Dominions known as “Caid el Ardh” who finally drove away the Portugues from the East Coast sought alliance with the Sultan of the Comoro Islands. The Sultan of the Comores at that time one Seyyid Ahmed bin Saleh answered by a letter exhibited at the Zanzibar Museum)”

This ancestry story of  Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan started from Pate Island in Kenya where a Son of a prince banished from the Island of Patte in 18th/19th century, grows in Anjouan, married a daughter of Sultan Alaoui 1st, of which he had his elder son Saïd M’Kou. Succeeded in capturing Moroni and Iconi which he drove the Sultan Bamba Ouma, and proclaimed himself Sultan of Bambao. Fey Foumou was his brother-in-law, Boina Foumou was his father in law. So now we know who captured Aicha and married her off to MussaFumu of which in the end of the Sultanates reign; it will seem that Mussa Fumu was the Greater Sultan Tibe among all of the Sultans in my ancestry; especially to me he was.

In this fascinating history, my ancestral M’Haza wa Kaleheza belonging to the Higna Pirusa/Fombaia clan was taken captive from M’bude to Isandra. Aicha (asha), who my mother was name after, was taken as a captive to Itsandra; however, she was treated well and eventually married to MussaFumu in this case her successor was Bwana Fumu and the Mba-Fumu (from the womb of Fumu, which is my father’s side also)

Mussa Fumu was a very powerful and stronger ruler among all the Sultanates on the Comoros, because he would not give in to either French or Arabs to the end. He didn’t want to loose the Comoro Island but in the end he did.

In 1885 Said Ali, the “Black Sultan” gave Leon Humblot (French Exploiter) the “White Sultan” a large concession covering as much lands as he could exploit (in fact the whole island) Humblot became the real ruler of the island it was only in 1912 that he lost his last administrative powers.

After most of the Sultanates were defeated in fighting this deal, they submitted to Sultan Ali Said. At this time rivalry between Ngazija’s two largest sultanates had become civil war. France was supporting Sa’id Ali, Sultan of Bambao, against his rival Mas Fumu of Itsandra. (Musa bin Fehem called Msa Fum by the natives was the maternal cousin to Ali). Shaikh Kari persuaded Sultan Barghash to send Nyamwezi troops in support of Msa Fumu, but to no avail: after a seven-month siege of Itsandra, during which many died of starvation, Msa Fumu was captured by his enemies and strangled, and many of those who had been loyal to him fled overseas. Numbers of the Ngazija aristocrats, according to an informant of Heepe’s in 1912 (1920: 89-93) went to Zanzibar. http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/104/1/Shepherd_The_Comorians_in_Kenya_.pdf

Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan descends from The Nabhani dynasty (or Nabahina dynasty) and the Yaruba dynasty (also spelled Ya’Aruba or Ya’arubi)

1154-1749 Nabahans/Y’Aruba dynasty of Oman

1749CE Oman was established, after Sayyid’s BuSaidi family had supplanted the previous Y’Aruba dynasty for the control of Oman.

At this time, the Mazrui family were very angry and unhappy because  Al BuSaidi’s family supplanted Y’Aruba  and they expected to take on the coast of East Africa. They broke away from Oman and contested Sayyid’s choices for learders of coastal Swahili towns; thus when Mazrui family tried to capture cities like Lamu and Pate which were vassals of Oman, but Oman’s strong hold over the Swahili coast drove out a pro-Mazrui  government in the city of Pate and Sayyid’s forces captured the island of Pemba as well in 1823 from Mazrui supporters. (Sebastian Maisel, John A. Shoup, An Encyclopedia of Life in the Arab States, Volume 1 and 2, Chronology)

According to Ibuni Saleh 1936 Short History of the Comorians in Zanzibar pg 8

“We have an authentic record that in the end of the 17th Century, Imam Seif bin Sultan, the son of Imam Sultan bin Seif who in 1651 captured Muscat from the Portuguese, then sovereign Lord of East African Dominions known as “Caid el Ardh” who finally drove away the Portugues from the East Coast sought alliance with the Sultan of the Comoro Islands. The Sultan of the Comores at that time one Seyyid Ahmed bin Saleh answered by a letter exhibited at the Zanzibar Museum)”

At the time of Sultan Ahmed Said (1793 + 1875), there was a sultanates federation under the authority of a supreme leader: the thibe sultan. The federation included twelve provinces administered by a sultan. The Sultan Ahmed Said, the Sultanate of Bambao exercised suzerainty over five provincial sultanates and the Sultan rival, Moussa Foumou Sultanate Itsandra exercised his on three provincial sultanates. The provinces of BADJINI and DOMBA were autonomous

In A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the London School of Economics 1982 where in page 14 my cousin Asya Turki was acknowledged by the writer as follow:- “In Nairobi I owe most to the help and hospitality of Saad Yahya and Assiah Turki”. Gillian Marie Shepherd – THE COMORIANS IN KENYA: THE ESTABLISHMENT AND LOSS OF AN ECONOMIC NICHE – Most details of her manuscript on Comorian employment are drawn from the published work of  Ibuni Saleh, from the manuscript of Burhan Mkelle (both Zanzibar-born Comorians writing in the 1930s) and from the memories of Comorian informants about their fathers and grandfathers. Mkelle’s manuscript is invaluable since it contains over eighty thumbnail sketches of notable Comorians in Zanzibar and the positions they held, the writer goes on to say. Comorians held various positions of importance in what was essentially Sultan Barghash’s highly personal Civil Service. There were clerks, working both as secretaries and translators; Matar bin Abdallah who, as the speaker of several European languages, was appointed to liaise between foreign consuls and the Palace; and Shaikh Kari ibn al Haj who was made Ra’is al Baladiya (Chief, Governor) of Zanzibar town, representing the townspeople to the Sultan and the Sultan to the townspeople. Sharif Mamboya also became a Court Chamberlain and acted as advisor to both Barghash and Lloyd Mathews (Mkelle, 1930: 5-6). Shaikh Kari was responsible, in part, for the arrival in Zanzibar of many more WaNgazija during Barghash’s reign, Comorians who had held positions of importance in the Palace or the Army continued to live and work in Zanzibar. Shaikh Khamis bin Sa’id, who had been Mathews’ adjutant since the 1870s, was appointed one of the four Arab Ministers at Court, and Shaikh Salim bin Azan, a Baluchi-Comorian, was another (Saleh, 1936: 2a). The Palace Treasurer and Paymaster, and the Chief of Security were also Comorian (Mkelle, 1930: 5-7, 22-23).32

Comorians with religious posts seem to have stayed in Zanzibar as well. Two Comorian walis were appointed; Shaikh Abdallah bin Wazir al-Ntsujini, an old friend of Sultan Ali bin Sa’id, became Mufti and also worked as adviser to Zanzibar’s wakf Council, and the reputation Comorians had for religious expertise must have been greatly enhanced by the presence of their compatriot Sayyid Ahmad Abu Bakr bin Sumait al-Alawi. East Africa’s most august scholar until his death in 1925, Sayyid Ahmad had returned to Zanzibar after studies in Istanbul in 1888, becoming first kadi and eventually Grand Mufti. His legal skills and his publications made him well-known throughout the muslim world (B.G. Martin, 1971: 541-544). http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/104/1/Shepherd_The_Comorians_in_Kenya_.pdf

 

From the Anjouan history- their view of the Grande Comore and the sultans on the Comoros    They saw the political tradition of the Grande-Comore to be the opposite of that of Anjouan, and typically feudal.  http://www.anjouan.net/en_histoire.htm

(follow the link, then go all the way to the end read Differences with the Grande-Comore, which reveals exactly who the Fumu were, how they are all related, why the Anjouans nicknamed Comoro “island of fighters Sultans”)

 

A fascinating history of my ancestors as told to me by my great grand maternal mother; my great nana used to tell us stories all the time. She used to tell us stories about our families and how they migrated from Comoro Islands to Zanzibar; and why during weddings and funerals they meet, and clans from different parts of Comoros who reside in Zanzibar will be participating by presenting their actual cities.

For example, when a prominent Comorian died in Zanzibar during a funeral you’ll notice prayers/supplications/memorial will come from the people of Mitsamihuli one day, the next day from the people of Iconi, Mbude, Itsandra each day presented by different clan who reign the Comoros in 16th Century. Same thing happens for the weddings and in some other important days that were deemed important for Comorians, which are now having died with our ancestors like my great grand mother. When I was a young lady, I myself participated in some practices representing clans of Iconi, Itsandaa and Mitsamihuli. This practice of Comorians representing clans during celebrations goes on today, among the Clans of Comorian who reside in Zanzibar islands.

 

Out of this fascinating history, I remember some of the stories told to me from my childhood by my great maternal grand mother, Bi Maryam wa Mchangama-Mkelle 1882-1983, who died when she was over 100 yrs in Zanzibar; born, raised and was exiled from the Comoro Islands to Zanzibar Islands. She took care of her brother’s kids, among them were Burhan Mkelle, Abdulrahman Mkelle, Miledi’s dad and others. She used to like telling 16th to 18th Centuries stories, and sometimes enact on some important public days that she still remembered. She will always tell stories about my ancestors because she wanted me to find the reality about some of her stories for myself. Today, as a result of all that, I , Dinnah Moh’d Saleh Mba-Fumu Ali Said (other names not known but would like to know further). As an adult of contemporary 21st century, savvy in techno world of internet, I set out to look for my name and the family tree behind it, it’s significant meaning and anything else that will satisfies my unsettled soul; for I would like to know what comes after Mba-Fumu Ali Said, especially, when recalling the story from my grand mother about my ancestors.

The story from the #Horn_of_Africa and #African_Great_Lakes that shook the Sunni Muslim dynasties during the reign of the Sultan Tibe who was the Head of Confederation which covered most of the Grande Comore/Ngazija island.

Sultan Tibe was formally the Sultans of Bambao and Itsandra alternated in holding the office. In practice however, all succession was decided by war.

In this fascinating peace of history, my ancestoral M’Haza wa Kaleheza belonging to the Higna Pirusa/Fombaia clan was taken captive from M’bude to Isandra. Aicha (asha), who my mother was name after, was taken as a captive to Itsandra; however, she was treated well and eventually married to MussaFumu in this case her successor was Bwana Fumu and the Mba-Fumu (from the womb of Fumu, this is now is my father’s side also; as we know royalty only marries royalty) the Clan of Higna Moitsa Pirusa who reign from Itsandra to Mitsamihuli, Washili, Mbude to Hamehame. As it seems, my ancenstors from my mother’s side and my father’s side are somewhat related.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sultans_on_the_Comoros#See_also

http://www.comores-online.com/mwezinet/histoire/sultansngazidja.htm#%287%29

 

In A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the London School of Economics 1982 where in page 14 my cousin Asya Turki was acknowledged by the writer as follow:- “In Nairobi I owe most to the help and hospitality of Saad Yahya and Assiah Turki”. Gillian Marie Shepherd – THE COMORIANS IN KENYA: THE ESTABLISHMENT AND LOSS OF AN ECONOMIC NICHE – Most details of her manuscript on Comorian employment are drawn from the published work of Ibuni Saleh, from the manuscript of Burhan Mkelle (both Zanzibar-born Comorians writing in the 1930s) and from the memories of Comorian informants about their fathers and grandfathers. Mkelle’s manuscript is invaluable since it contains over eighty thumbnail sketches of notable Comorians in Zanzibar and the positions they held, the writer goes on to say. Comorians held various positions of importance in what was essentially Sultan Barghash’s highly personal Civil Service. There were clerks, working both as secretaries and translators; Matar bin Abdallah who, as the speaker of several European languages, was appointed to liaise between foreign consuls and the Palace; and Shaikh Kari ibn al Haj who was made Ra’is al Baladiya (Chief, Governor) of Zanzibar town, representing the townspeople to the Sultan and the Sultan to the townspeople. Sharif Mamboya also became a Court Chamberlain and acted as advisor to both Barghash and Lloyd Mathews (Mkelle, 1930: 5-6). Shaikh Kari was responsible, in part, for the arrival in Zanzibar of many more WaNgazija during Barghash’s reign, Comorians who had held positions of importance in the Palace or the Army continued to live and work in Zanzibar. Shaikh Khamis bin Sa’id, who had been Mathews’ adjutant since the 1870s, was appointed one of the four Arab Ministers at Court, and Shaikh Salim bin Azan, a Baluchi-Comorian, was another (Saleh, 1936: 2a). The Palace Treasurer and Paymaster, and the Chief of Security were also Comorian (Mkelle, 1930: 5-7, 22-23).32
Comorians with religious posts seem to have stayed in Zanzibar as well. Two Comorian walis were appointed; Shaikh Abdallah bin Wazir al-Ntsujini, an old friend of Sultan Ali bin Sa’id, became Mufti and also worked as adviser to Zanzibar’s wakf Council, and the reputation Comorians had for religious expertise must have been greatly enhanced by the presence of their compatriot Sayyid Ahmad Abu Bakr bin Sumait al-Alawi. East Africa’s most august scholar until his death in 1925, Sayyid Ahmad had returned to Zanzibar after studies in Istanbul in 1888, becoming first kadi and eventually Grand Mufti. His legal skills and his publications made him well-known throughout the muslim world (B.G. Martin, 1971: 541-544).
http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/104/1/Shepherd_The_Comorians_in_Kenya_.pdf

From the Anjouan history- their view of the Grande Comore and the sultans on the Comoros They saw the political tradition of the Grande-Comore to be the opposite of that of Anjouan, and typically feudal.http://www.anjouan.net/en_histoire.htm
(follow the link, then go all the way to the end read Differences with the Grande-Comore, which reveals exactly who the Fumu were, how they are all related, why the Anjouans nicknamed Comoro “island of fighters Sultans”)

A fascinating history of my ancestors as told to me by my great grand maternal mother; my great nana used to tell us stories all the time. She used to tell us stories about our families and how they migrated from Comoro Islands to Zanzibar; and why during weddings and funerals they meet, and clans from different parts of Comoros who reside in Zanzibar will be participating by presenting their actual cities.
For example, when a prominent Comorian died in Zanzibar during a funeral you’ll notice prayers/supplications/memorial will come from the people of Mitsamihuli one day, the next day from the people of Iconi, Mbude, Itsandra each day presented by different clan who reign the Comoros in 16th Century. Same thing happens for the weddings and in some other important days that were deemed important for Comorians, which are now having died with our ancestors like my great grand mother. When I was a young lady, I myself participated in some practices representing clans of Iconi, Itsandaa and Mitsamihuli. This practice of Comorians representing clans during celebrations goes on today, among the Clans of Comorian who reside in Zanzibar islands. Out of this fascinating history, I remember some of the stories told to me from my childhood by my great maternal grand mother, Bi Maryam wa Mchangama-Mkelle 1882-1983, who died when she was over 100 yrs in Zanzibar; born, raised and was exiled from the Comoro Islands to Zanzibar Islands. She took care of her brother’s kids, among them were Burhan Mkelle, Abdulrahman, Miledi’s dad and others. She used to like telling 16th to 18th Centuries stories, and sometimes enact on some important public days that she still remembered. She will always tell stories about my ancestors because she wanted me to find the reality about some of her stories for myself. Today, as a result of all that, I , Dinnah Moh’d Saleh Mba-Fumu Ali Said (other names not known but would like to know further). As an adult of contemporary 21st century, savvy in techno world of internet, I set out to look for my name and the family tree behind it, it’s significant meaning and anything else that will satisfies my unsettled soul; for I would like to know what comes after Mba-Fumu Ali Said, especially, when recalling the story from my grand mother about my ancestors. The story from the #Horn_of_Africa and #African_Great_Lakes that shook the Sunni Muslim dynasties during the reign of the Sultan Tibe who was the Head of Confederation which covered most of the Grande Comore/Ngazija island. Sultan Tibe was formally the Sultans of Bambao and Itsandra alternated in holding the office. In practice however, all succession was decided by war.
In this fascinating peace of history, my ancestoral M’Haza wa Kaleheza belonging to the Higna Pirusa/Fombaia clan was taken captive from M’bude to Isandra. Aicha (asha), who my mother was name after, was taken as a captive to Itsandra; however, she was treated well and eventually married to MussaFumu in this case her successor was Bwana Fumu and the Mba-Fumu (from the womb of Fumu, this is now is my father’s side also; as we know royalty only marries royalty) the Clan of Higna Moitsa Pirusa who reign from Itsandra to Mitsamihuli, Washili, Mbude to Hamehame. As it seems, my ancenstors from my mother’s side and my father’s side are somewhat related.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sultans_on_the_Comoros#See_also
http://www.comores-online.com/mwezinet/histoire/sultansngazidja.htm#%287%29

Omani ruled most of the coast of East Africa around 18th to 20th century                                                                                     http://www.royalark.net/Oman/oman2.htm

My splintered soul is healing as my wrenching heart is still sobbing, looking into the eyes of my ancestors; especially the picture of babu bw. Fumu (Fuom). Families who are here sharing their comments and reading these stories, we should be able to make a difference among all the families, bury our hatchets and know we will always be family First! What ever happened with our forefathers in Comoro we will never be able to understand it today.
All I can say is, it’s not easy to be in a position of power, as a King or Sultan or the like especially if you’re also a commander in chief, to your province. We heard gruesome stories in our times about kingdoms and how people attain these kingdoms. One will kill a brother, or a father to be able to rule a province more efficiently, or just because of greed. Not to sway from continuing on the story about my findings on my ancestors, but some things and stories that we read or hear about from the past may be unacceptable to you, or me, as they may also be unacceptable in our 21st century; but they happen. Some things are just bad karma we created, and it comes around to bite us. For example, what we seeing now of the extremist Muslims like Isis, Bin Laden and the like are the cause affect of what Europeans did to these dynasties.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Sunni_Muslim_dynasties

Make sure you use the links on here for references of these stories okay. Fascinating, heart-wrenching, soul healing

Did you guys have a nana that told incredible stories some hard to believe? I had one, she told this unbelievable incredible story that I think some of the Comorians here have heard it from your nana too. Stories that don’t make sense but tell a history of families. Here is that story

“The story was that a King migrated his seven (Princes) Sultans from Persia during the war, the fall of an empire, and from religious persecutions or conflicts. They sailed from Persia into the Indian Ocean, sailing towards South Africa, Malaysia etc. They got lost in the sea and were about to give up from life. Tired, sick, some hungry and eluded they drifted through the night to an appearance of a big shiny rock. the_comoros-t2

The island looked like a big chunk of moon rock, shining like a moon; thus, they named it al Qumur (Comoro). They said the rock was under the influence of the light from the moon, hence it shined like the moon. The Island seemed empty, like no one lives there. They were tired, sick, hungry, angry, disappointed.

At the Island, Jinns were secretly watching them. The legends said that during the time of the prophet Suleiman/Solomon or King Solomon, Jinns were jailed in different Islands around the African continent and beyond. The prophet Suleiman/King Solomon was given a power by God to be able to jail these Jinns, ordered them around and so forth . When the part of the history from King Solomon ended, the Jinns were forgotten but they were and are here even now. Some of these Jinns, who were jailed in the Islands of Comoro continued to populate the Island and reigned as royals, when the boat carrying seven sultans (princes) arrived in Comoro; The stories from my ancestors goes on to say that, when the Jinns saw the destitute travelers, they took the form of people and went to their dows (ships) and helped them to the land.  comoros-island-city

The Jinns appeared as people, as living being as the travelers were. The place they landed was called Mbajini. The seven Sultans, after they were done relaxing they wanted to pray, so they asked for a mosque, in order that they can pray. There were no muslims in the island; hence, there was no mosque. But, when the sultans wanted to pray in the morning, the mosque appeared. This mosque is said to be there today in this present century in Mbajini the town named after those Jinis and is one of heritage places as recognize ( together with other five sites collectively proposed by) UNESCO World Heritage site:
The legend of this story continue on to state that the Sultans lived happily in Mbajini area in the Islands of Comoros and married the daughters of their hosts, the Jinns. Then the King of this clan, who gave his daughters in marriage to the Sultans, asked them to board their boats and start moving around the islands, starting with the Grand Comoro. Each was given a Cock(hen) and was told when the bird crows (cockdoddle doo) at a place they were to come down at the spot and make their dynasty there, make family and have a living. The first cock crows right there at Mbajini, the second Iconi, Isandara, Mbude, Mitsamihuli, Hamehame, Hambu etc….Even today, in this present century, the comorians, living in Zanzibar, when they have their weddings, or ceremonies a person will start calling on these cities and all of the representative from these different sites will come forth, to depict the old legends.

History of Anjouan
anjouan.net

The below information collected by Jean Martin (op. cit. p. 358-388). http://www.anjouan.net/en_histoire.htm  

«The title of Sultan Tibé was not hereditary, and the war seems to have been one of the only ways to acquire it with the possession of goods, because the winner had to demonstrate generosity and distribute bonuses: oxen, clothes, paddy and millet, for that his primacy was recognized by its peers» (Jean Martin, op. cit. v.1, p.60).
The identity of these little princes is uncertain because it has only been transmitted by oral tradition, without chronological indicators, and in strong different lists according to the informants; on the contrary of Anjouan where the relations with the Europeans allowed, thanks to the documents left by these, a certainty on the identity of the successive sovereigns, and chronological indicators rather precise.
In fact, one possesses pieces of information rather precise only in the nineteenth century, when relations with the British or the French began to be more frequent. Presumably the story of Sultan Tibé Mougné M’Kou (1813-1875) gives an idea of what were the reigns of his predecessors.Son of a prince, and of a Comorian princess, Moina Mtiti, daughter of the Higna Pirusa clan, banished from the Island of Patte on the east coast of Africa, Mougné M’kou grows in Anjouan where his father had taken refuge. He married a daughter of Sultan Alaoui 1st, of which he had his elder son Saïd M’Kou.On the death of his father, and his maternal aunt having become sovereign of Bambao, he returned to Grande-Comore in 1814.Having established, with money (because his father had died very rich), a party in the Bambao, and have bought some sympathy among the notables of Itsandra, Mougné M’kou succeeded in capturing Moroni and Iconi which he drove the Sultan Bamba Ouma, and proclaimed himself Sultan of Bambao.But that was not enough for his ambition. Coveting the title of Tibé, he began to forge alliances among other sultans, to whom he gave in marriage the daughters of his family. He attacked the Sultan of Bagdini, put it in escape, and replaced him by his brother-in-law. Then, with his allies, he turned against the Sultan Tibé of then, Fey Foumou. He put it in escape, and gave the throne of Itsandra to his father-in-law, Boina Foumou. He then proclaimed himself Sultan Tibé.However, the former Tibé, Fey Foumou, succeeded in forming a coalition in which he rallied Boina Foumou. Defeated, Mougné M’kou was dispossessed and placed under house arrest. Then having succeeded obtaining the assistance of his brother-in-law, Abdallah II of Anjouan, who sent him a contingent of soldiers on a whaler, he said Moroni and his Bambao sultanate, and done allegiance to his father-in-law, Boina Foumou, has meanwhile become Sultan Tibé. This happened around 1830.Around 1833 he went to Anjouan, for the wedding of one of his children and then did the pilgrimage of The Mecca. He returned quieted, and satisfied, for seven years, of his sultanate from Bambao to Moroni. Then, a coalition has been assembled around the ancient Tibé, Fey Foumou to dispossess the Tibé Boina Foumou, hostilities resumed in the island. Mougné M’Kou, after hesitation, rushed to help his father-in-law, but Fey Foumou, having obtained reinforcements of Sakalaves of Moheli, was victorious, and Mougné M’kou, having again lost his sultanate, was under house arrest. A year later, the new Tibé gave the small sultanate of Oichili. Meanwhile, Boina Foumou together a new coalition to unseat Fey Foumou, to the sides of which had arranged Mougné M’kou. He was victorious, but a year later returned the Bambao to his son.Around 1840, a new coalition around Fey Foumou nocked again Boira Foumou. Tibé once more, aging Fey Foumou gave the government of Itsandra to his son Foumbavou, what he did to recognize as Tibé.Mougné M’kou thought then offset weakness in attracting the good graces of the French recently installed in Mayotte. He tied up, with the Superior Commanders of the colony, relations that allowed him to obtain from them a probably superior consideration to what it was in reality, and an unofficial protection. Mougné M’Kou profited, circa 1846, to resume hostilities against Foumbavou; he lost his new fiefdom, and had to take refuge to Mitsamiouli.1154-1749 Nabahans/Y’Aruba dynasty of Oman
Pate Island in Kenya where a Son of a prince banished from the Island of Patte in 18th/19th century, grows in Anjouan, married a daughter of Sultan Alaoui 1st, of which he had his elder son Saïd M’Kou. Succeeded in capturing Moroni and Iconi which he drove the Sultan Bamba Ouma, and proclaimed himself Sultan of Bambao. Fey Foumou was his brother-in-law, Boina Foumou was his father in law. So now we know who captured Aicha and married her off to MussaFumu.
http://www.anjouan.net/en_histoire.htm
(follow the link, then go all the way to the end read Differences with the Grande-Comore, which reveals exactly who the Fumu were, how they are all related, why the Anjouans nicknamed Comoro “island of fighters Sultans”)

 

 

 

The story from the ‪#‎Horn_of_Africa‬ and ‪#‎African_Great_Lakes‬ that shook the Sunni Muslim dynasties during the reign of the Sultan Tibe

DEDICATION TO MY CHILDREN – FAHD & MOH’D

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Sunni_Muslim_dynasties#African_Great_Lakes

From I, who is a descendant of Higna Pirusa Clan. – A Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan – 16th Century Reign of African Great Lakes!

A fascinating history of my ancestors as told to me by my great grand maternal mother; my great nana used to tell us stories all the time.                                       She used to tell us stories about our families and how they migrated from Comoro Islands to Zanzibar; and why during weddings and funerals they meet, and clans from different parts of Comoros who reside in Zanzibar will be participating by presenting their actual cities.                                                                      For example, when a prominent Comorian died in Zanzibar during a funeral you’ll notice prayers/supplications/memorial will come from the people of Mitsamihuli one day, the next day from the people of Iconi, Mbude, Itsandra each day presented by different clan who reign the Comoros in 16th Century. Same thing happens for the weddings and in some other important days that were deemed important for Comorians, which are now having died with our ancestors like my great grand mother.                                                                                        When I was a young lady,  I myself participated in some practices representing clans of  Iconi, Itsandaa and Mitsamihuli. This practice of Comorians representing clans during celebrations goes on today, among the Clans of Comorian who reside in Zanzibar islands.                                                                                                Out of this fascinating history, I remember some of the stories told to me from my childhood by my great maternal grand mother, Bi Maryam wa Mchangama-Mkelle 1882-1983, who died when she was over 100 yrs in Zanzibar; she was born, raised and was exiled from the Comoro Islands to Zanzibar Islands.  She took care of her brother’s kids, among them were Burhan Mkelle, Abdulrahman and others. She used to like telling 16th to 18th Centuries stories, and sometimes enact on some important public days that she still remembered. She will always tell stories about my ancestors because she wanted me to find the reality about some of her stories for myself.                                                                                                        Today, as a result of all that, I , Dinnah Moh’d Saleh Mba-Fumu Ali Said (other names not known but would like to know further). As an adult of contemporary 21st century, savvy in techno world of internet, I set out to look for my name and the family tree behind it, it’s significant meaning and anything else that will satisfies my unsettled soul; for I would like to know what comes after Mba-Fumu Ali Said, especially, when recalling the story from my grand mother about my ancestors. The story from the #Horn_of_Africa and #African_Great_Lakes that shook the Sunni Muslim dynasties during the reign of the Sultan Tibe who was the Head of Confederation which covered most of the Grande Comore/Ngazija island.

SultanSaidAli2                                      Sultan Tibe was formally the Sultans of Bambao and Itsandra alternated in holding the office. In practice however, all succession was decided by war.
In this fascinating peace of history, my ancestoral M’Haza wa Kaleheza belonging to the Higna Pirusa/Fombaia clan was taken captive from M’bude to Isandra. Aicha (asha), who my mother was name after, was taken as a captive to Itsandra; however, she was treated well and eventually married to MussaFumu in this case her successor was Bwana Fumu and the Mba-Fumu (from the womb of Fumu, this is now is my father’s side also; as we know royalty only marries royalty) the Clan of Higna Moitsa Pirusa who reign from Itsandra to Mitsamihuli, Washili, Mbude to Hamehame. As it seems, my ancenstors from my mother’s side and my father’s side are somewhat related.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wi…/List_of_sultans_on_the_Comoros…
http://www.comores-online.com/…/histoi…/sultansngazidja.htm…

Tracing the Archaeological background of Higna Pirusa Clan who reigned the Comoro islands during the 17th and 19th centuries.

In the course of the 16th century several Sultanates were established on the island of Grande Comore. Most of them were united in a very loose confederation, covering the largest part of the island.
At this period of time, The Nabhani dynasty and the Ya’aruba dynasty have control of Oman.

The Clan of Higna Moitsa Pirusa who reign from Itsandra to Mitsamihuli, Washili, Mbude to Hamehame were a descendants from The Nabhani dynasty (or Nabahina dynasty), members of the Bani Nabhan family, were rulers of Oman from 1154 until 1624, when the Yaruba dynasty took power.

There are records of personal visits by Nabhani rulers to Ethiopia, Zanzibar, the Lamu Archipelago of what is now Kenya, and Persia. The al-Nabhani dynasty of Pate Island in the Lamu Archipelago claimed descent from the Omani dynasty.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabhani_dynasty

Higna Pirusa Clan started in Patte Island and the male figure in this clan was from Nabahan Dynasty. These particular Nabahans from Pate claimed to have come from (Sham)Iraq/Iran or Syria but Archaeological findings trace them coming from Muscat (Muslim Societies in Africa pg215). These Nabahan members are from the Yaruba Dynasty. Yaruba (Y’Aruba) tribe is said to be related to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

The Yaruba dynasty (also spelled Ya’Aruba or Ya’arubi) were rulers of Oman between 1624 and 1742, holding the title of Imam. They expelled the Portuguese from coastal strongholds in Muscat and united the country. They improved agriculture, expanded trade and built up Oman into a major maritime power. Their forces expelled the Portuguese from East Africa north of Mozambique and established long-lasting settlements on Zanzibar, Mombasa and other parts of the coast. The dynasty lost power during a succession struggle that started in 1712 and fell after a prolonged period of civil war. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaruba_dynasty

In 1719 Muhanna bin Sultan was brought into Rustaq Fort by stealth and proclaimed Imam. He was unpopular, and the next year was deposed and killed by his cousin Ya’arub bin Bal’arab. Ya’arub bin Bal’arab set up Saif bin Sultan II as the Imam and proclaimed himself Custodian. Saif bin Sultan II was undisputed ruler, but he led a self-indulgent life, which turned the tribes against him. Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi was elected Imam in 1744.

According to Ibuni Saleh 1936 Short History of the Comorians in Zanzibar pg 8
“We have an authentic record that in the end of the 17th Century, Imam Seif bin Sultan, the son of Imam Sultan bin Seif who in 1651 captured Muscat from the Portuguese, then sovereign Lord of East African Dominions known as “Caid el Ardh” who finally drove away the Portugues from the East Coast sought alliance with the Sultan of the Comoro Islands. The Sultan of the Comores at that time one Seyyid Ahmed bin Saleh answered by a letter exhibited at the Zanzibar Museum)”

This ancestry story of Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan started from Pate Island in Kenya where a Son of a prince banished from the Island of Patte in 18th/19th century, grows in Anjouan, married a daughter of Sultan Alaoui 1st, of which he had his elder son Saïd M’Kou. Succeeded in capturing Moroni and Iconi which he drove the Sultan Bamba Ouma, and proclaimed himself Sultan of Bambao. Fey Foumou was his brother-in-law, Boina Foumou was his father in law. So now we know who captured Aicha and married her off to MussaFumu of which in the end of the Sultanates reign; it will seem that Mussa Fumu was the Greater Sultan Tibe among all of the Sultans in my ancestry; especially to me he was.

In this fascinating history, my ancestral M’Haza wa Kaleheza belonging to the Higna Pirusa/Fombaia clan was taken captive from M’bude to Isandra. Aicha (asha), who my mother was name after, was taken as a captive to Itsandra; however, she was treated well and eventually married to MussaFumu in this case her successor was Bwana Fumu and the Mba-Fumu (from the womb of Fumu, which is my father’s side also)

Mussa Fumu was a very powerful and stronger ruler among all the Sultanates on the Comoros, because he would not give in to either French or Arabs to the end. He didn’t want to loose the Comoro Island but in the end he did.

In 1885 Said Ali, the “Black Sultan” gave Leon Humblot (French Exploiter) the “White Sultan” a large concession covering as much lands as he could exploit (in fact the whole island) Humblot became the real ruler of the island it was only in 1912 that he lost his last administrative powers.
After most of the Sultanates were defeated in fighting this deal, they submitted to Sultan Ali Said. At this time rivalry between Ngazija’s two largest sultanates had become civil war. France was supporting Sa’id Ali, Sultan of Bambao, against his rival Mas Fumu of Itsandra. (Musa bin Fehem called Msa Fum by the natives was the maternal cousin to Ali). Shaikh Kari persuaded Sultan Barghash to send Nyamwezi troops in support of Msa Fumu, but to no avail: after a seven-month siege of Itsandra, during which many died of starvation, Msa Fumu was captured by his enemies and strangled, and many of those who had been loyal to him fled overseas. Numbers of the Ngazija aristocrats, according to an informant of Heepe’s in 1912 (1920: 89-93) went to Zanzibar.http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/…/Shepherd_The_Comorians_in_Kenya_…

Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan descends from The Nabhani dynasty (or Nabahina dynasty) and the Yaruba dynasty (also spelled Ya’Aruba or Ya’arubi)

1154-1749 Nabahans/Y’Aruba dynasty of Oman
1749CE Oman was established, after Sayyid’s BuSaidi family had supplanted the previous Y’Aruba dynasty for the control of Oman.
At this time, the Mazrui family were very angry and unhappy because Al BuSaidi’s family supplanted Y’Aruba and they expected to take on the coast of East Africa. They broke away from Oman and contested Sayyid’s choices for learders of coastal Swahili towns; thus when Mazrui family tried to capture cities like Lamu and Pate which were vassals of Oman, but Oman’s strong hold over the Swahili coast drove out a pro-Mazrui government in the city of Pate and Sayyid’s forces captured the island of Pemba as well in 1823 from Mazrui supporters. (Sebastian Maisel, John A. Shoup, An Encyclopedia of Life in the Arab States, Volume 1 and 2, Chronology)

According to Ibuni Saleh 1936 Short History of the Comorians in Zanzibar pg 8
“We have an authentic record that in the end of the 17th Century, Imam Seif bin Sultan, the son of Imam Sultan bin Seif who in 1651 captured Muscat from the Portuguese, then sovereign Lord of East African Dominions known as “Caid el Ardh” who finally drove away the Portugues from the East Coast sought alliance with the Sultan of the Comoro Islands. The Sultan of the Comores at that time one Seyyid Ahmed bin Saleh answered by a letter exhibited at the Zanzibar Museum)”

At the time of Sultan Ahmed Said (1793 + 1875), there was a sultanates federation under the authority of a supreme leader: the thibe sultan. The federation included twelve provinces administered by a sultan. The Sultan Ahmed Said, the Sultanate of Bambao exercised suzerainty over five provincial sultanates and the Sultan rival, Moussa Foumou Sultanate Itsandra exercised his on three provincial sultanates. The provinces of BADJINI and DOMBA were autonomous

In A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the London School of Economics 1982 where in page 14 my cousin Asya Turki was acknowledged by the writer as follow:- “In Nairobi I owe most to the help and hospitality of Saad Yahya and Assiah Turki”. Gillian Marie Shepherd – THE COMORIANS IN KENYA: THE ESTABLISHMENT AND LOSS OF AN ECONOMIC NICHE – Most details of her manuscript on Comorian employment are drawn from the published work of Ibuni Saleh, from the manuscript of Burhan Mkelle (both Zanzibar-born Comorians writing in the 1930s) and from the memories of Comorian informants about their fathers and grandfathers. Mkelle’s manuscript is invaluable since it contains over eighty thumbnail sketches of notable Comorians in Zanzibar and the positions they held, the writer goes on to say.

Comorians held various positions of importance in what was essentially Sultan Barghash’s highly personal Civil Service. There were clerks, working both as secretaries and translators; Matar bin Abdallah who, as the speaker of several European languages, was appointed to liaise between foreign consuls and the Palace; and Shaikh Kari ibn al Haj who was made Ra’is al Baladiya (Chief, Governor) of Zanzibar town, representing the townspeople to the Sultan and the Sultan to the townspeople. Sharif Mamboya also became a Court Chamberlain and acted as advisor to both Barghash and Lloyd Mathews (Mkelle, 1930: 5-6). Shaikh Kari was responsible, in part, for the arrival in Zanzibar of many more WaNgazija during Barghash’s reign, Comorians who had held positions of importance in the Palace or the Army continued to live and work in Zanzibar. Shaikh Khamis bin Sa’id, who had been Mathews’ adjutant since the 1870s, was appointed one of the four Arab Ministers at Court, and Shaikh Salim bin Azan, a Baluchi-Comorian, was another (Saleh, 1936: 2a). The Palace Treasurer and Paymaster, and the Chief of Security were also Comorian (Mkelle, 1930: 5-7, 22-23).32
Comorians with religious posts seem to have stayed in Zanzibar as well. Two Comorian walis were appointed; Shaikh Abdallah bin Wazir al-Ntsujini, an old friend of Sultan Ali bin Sa’id, became Mufti and also worked as adviser to Zanzibar’s wakf Council, and the reputation Comorians had for religious expertise must have been greatly enhanced by the presence of their compatriot Sayyid Ahmad Abu Bakr bin Sumait al-Alawi. East Africa’s most august scholar until his death in 1925, Sayyid Ahmad had returned to Zanzibar after studies in Istanbul in 1888, becoming first kadi and eventually Grand Mufti. His legal skills and his publications made him well-known throughout the muslim world (B.G. Martin, 1971: 541-544). http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/…/Shepherd_The_Comorians_in_Kenya_…

From the Anjouan history- their view of the Grande Comore and the sultans on the Comoros They saw the political tradition of the Grande-Comore to be the opposite of that of Anjouan, and typically feudal. http://www.anjouan.net/en_histoire.htm
(follow the link, then go all the way to the end read Differences with the Grande-Comore, which reveals exactly who the Fumu were, how they are all related, why the Anjouans nicknamed Comoro “island of fighters Sultans”)