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The story from the ‪#‎Horn_of_Africa‬ and ‪#‎African_Great_Lakes‬ that shook the Sunni Muslim dynasties during the reign of the Sultan Tibe

DEDICATION TO MY CHILDREN – FAHD & MOH’D

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Sunni_Muslim_dynasties#African_Great_Lakes

From I, who is a descendant of Higna Pirusa Clan. – A Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan – 16th Century Reign of African Great Lakes!

A fascinating history of my ancestors as told to me by my great grand maternal mother; my great nana used to tell us stories all the time.                                       She used to tell us stories about our families and how they migrated from Comoro Islands to Zanzibar; and why during weddings and funerals they meet, and clans from different parts of Comoros who reside in Zanzibar will be participating by presenting their actual cities.                                                                      For example, when a prominent Comorian died in Zanzibar during a funeral you’ll notice prayers/supplications/memorial will come from the people of Mitsamihuli one day, the next day from the people of Iconi, Mbude, Itsandra each day presented by different clan who reign the Comoros in 16th Century. Same thing happens for the weddings and in some other important days that were deemed important for Comorians, which are now having died with our ancestors like my great grand mother.                                                                                        When I was a young lady,  I myself participated in some practices representing clans of  Iconi, Itsandaa and Mitsamihuli. This practice of Comorians representing clans during celebrations goes on today, among the Clans of Comorian who reside in Zanzibar islands.                                                                                                Out of this fascinating history, I remember some of the stories told to me from my childhood by my great maternal grand mother, Bi Maryam wa Mchangama-Mkelle 1882-1983, who died when she was over 100 yrs in Zanzibar; she was born, raised and was exiled from the Comoro Islands to Zanzibar Islands.  She took care of her brother’s kids, among them were Burhan Mkelle, Abdulrahman and others. She used to like telling 16th to 18th Centuries stories, and sometimes enact on some important public days that she still remembered. She will always tell stories about my ancestors because she wanted me to find the reality about some of her stories for myself.                                                                                                        Today, as a result of all that, I , Dinnah Moh’d Saleh Mba-Fumu Ali Said (other names not known but would like to know further). As an adult of contemporary 21st century, savvy in techno world of internet, I set out to look for my name and the family tree behind it, it’s significant meaning and anything else that will satisfies my unsettled soul; for I would like to know what comes after Mba-Fumu Ali Said, especially, when recalling the story from my grand mother about my ancestors. The story from the #Horn_of_Africa and #African_Great_Lakes that shook the Sunni Muslim dynasties during the reign of the Sultan Tibe who was the Head of Confederation which covered most of the Grande Comore/Ngazija island.

SultanSaidAli2                                      Sultan Tibe was formally the Sultans of Bambao and Itsandra alternated in holding the office. In practice however, all succession was decided by war.
In this fascinating peace of history, my ancestoral M’Haza wa Kaleheza belonging to the Higna Pirusa/Fombaia clan was taken captive from M’bude to Isandra. Aicha (asha), who my mother was name after, was taken as a captive to Itsandra; however, she was treated well and eventually married to MussaFumu in this case her successor was Bwana Fumu and the Mba-Fumu (from the womb of Fumu, this is now is my father’s side also; as we know royalty only marries royalty) the Clan of Higna Moitsa Pirusa who reign from Itsandra to Mitsamihuli, Washili, Mbude to Hamehame. As it seems, my ancenstors from my mother’s side and my father’s side are somewhat related.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wi…/List_of_sultans_on_the_Comoros…
http://www.comores-online.com/…/histoi…/sultansngazidja.htm…

Tracing the Archaeological background of Higna Pirusa Clan who reigned the Comoro islands during the 17th and 19th centuries.

In the course of the 16th century several Sultanates were established on the island of Grande Comore. Most of them were united in a very loose confederation, covering the largest part of the island.
At this period of time, The Nabhani dynasty and the Ya’aruba dynasty have control of Oman.

The Clan of Higna Moitsa Pirusa who reign from Itsandra to Mitsamihuli, Washili, Mbude to Hamehame were a descendants from The Nabhani dynasty (or Nabahina dynasty), members of the Bani Nabhan family, were rulers of Oman from 1154 until 1624, when the Yaruba dynasty took power.

There are records of personal visits by Nabhani rulers to Ethiopia, Zanzibar, the Lamu Archipelago of what is now Kenya, and Persia. The al-Nabhani dynasty of Pate Island in the Lamu Archipelago claimed descent from the Omani dynasty.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabhani_dynasty

Higna Pirusa Clan started in Patte Island and the male figure in this clan was from Nabahan Dynasty. These particular Nabahans from Pate claimed to have come from (Sham)Iraq/Iran or Syria but Archaeological findings trace them coming from Muscat (Muslim Societies in Africa pg215). These Nabahan members are from the Yaruba Dynasty. Yaruba (Y’Aruba) tribe is said to be related to the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

The Yaruba dynasty (also spelled Ya’Aruba or Ya’arubi) were rulers of Oman between 1624 and 1742, holding the title of Imam. They expelled the Portuguese from coastal strongholds in Muscat and united the country. They improved agriculture, expanded trade and built up Oman into a major maritime power. Their forces expelled the Portuguese from East Africa north of Mozambique and established long-lasting settlements on Zanzibar, Mombasa and other parts of the coast. The dynasty lost power during a succession struggle that started in 1712 and fell after a prolonged period of civil war. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yaruba_dynasty

In 1719 Muhanna bin Sultan was brought into Rustaq Fort by stealth and proclaimed Imam. He was unpopular, and the next year was deposed and killed by his cousin Ya’arub bin Bal’arab. Ya’arub bin Bal’arab set up Saif bin Sultan II as the Imam and proclaimed himself Custodian. Saif bin Sultan II was undisputed ruler, but he led a self-indulgent life, which turned the tribes against him. Ahmad bin Said al-Busaidi was elected Imam in 1744.

According to Ibuni Saleh 1936 Short History of the Comorians in Zanzibar pg 8
“We have an authentic record that in the end of the 17th Century, Imam Seif bin Sultan, the son of Imam Sultan bin Seif who in 1651 captured Muscat from the Portuguese, then sovereign Lord of East African Dominions known as “Caid el Ardh” who finally drove away the Portugues from the East Coast sought alliance with the Sultan of the Comoro Islands. The Sultan of the Comores at that time one Seyyid Ahmed bin Saleh answered by a letter exhibited at the Zanzibar Museum)”

This ancestry story of Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan started from Pate Island in Kenya where a Son of a prince banished from the Island of Patte in 18th/19th century, grows in Anjouan, married a daughter of Sultan Alaoui 1st, of which he had his elder son Saïd M’Kou. Succeeded in capturing Moroni and Iconi which he drove the Sultan Bamba Ouma, and proclaimed himself Sultan of Bambao. Fey Foumou was his brother-in-law, Boina Foumou was his father in law. So now we know who captured Aicha and married her off to MussaFumu of which in the end of the Sultanates reign; it will seem that Mussa Fumu was the Greater Sultan Tibe among all of the Sultans in my ancestry; especially to me he was.

In this fascinating history, my ancestral M’Haza wa Kaleheza belonging to the Higna Pirusa/Fombaia clan was taken captive from M’bude to Isandra. Aicha (asha), who my mother was name after, was taken as a captive to Itsandra; however, she was treated well and eventually married to MussaFumu in this case her successor was Bwana Fumu and the Mba-Fumu (from the womb of Fumu, which is my father’s side also)

Mussa Fumu was a very powerful and stronger ruler among all the Sultanates on the Comoros, because he would not give in to either French or Arabs to the end. He didn’t want to loose the Comoro Island but in the end he did.

In 1885 Said Ali, the “Black Sultan” gave Leon Humblot (French Exploiter) the “White Sultan” a large concession covering as much lands as he could exploit (in fact the whole island) Humblot became the real ruler of the island it was only in 1912 that he lost his last administrative powers.
After most of the Sultanates were defeated in fighting this deal, they submitted to Sultan Ali Said. At this time rivalry between Ngazija’s two largest sultanates had become civil war. France was supporting Sa’id Ali, Sultan of Bambao, against his rival Mas Fumu of Itsandra. (Musa bin Fehem called Msa Fum by the natives was the maternal cousin to Ali). Shaikh Kari persuaded Sultan Barghash to send Nyamwezi troops in support of Msa Fumu, but to no avail: after a seven-month siege of Itsandra, during which many died of starvation, Msa Fumu was captured by his enemies and strangled, and many of those who had been loyal to him fled overseas. Numbers of the Ngazija aristocrats, according to an informant of Heepe’s in 1912 (1920: 89-93) went to Zanzibar.http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/…/Shepherd_The_Comorians_in_Kenya_…

Higna Fombaia/Moitsa Pirusa Clan descends from The Nabhani dynasty (or Nabahina dynasty) and the Yaruba dynasty (also spelled Ya’Aruba or Ya’arubi)

1154-1749 Nabahans/Y’Aruba dynasty of Oman
1749CE Oman was established, after Sayyid’s BuSaidi family had supplanted the previous Y’Aruba dynasty for the control of Oman.
At this time, the Mazrui family were very angry and unhappy because Al BuSaidi’s family supplanted Y’Aruba and they expected to take on the coast of East Africa. They broke away from Oman and contested Sayyid’s choices for learders of coastal Swahili towns; thus when Mazrui family tried to capture cities like Lamu and Pate which were vassals of Oman, but Oman’s strong hold over the Swahili coast drove out a pro-Mazrui government in the city of Pate and Sayyid’s forces captured the island of Pemba as well in 1823 from Mazrui supporters. (Sebastian Maisel, John A. Shoup, An Encyclopedia of Life in the Arab States, Volume 1 and 2, Chronology)

According to Ibuni Saleh 1936 Short History of the Comorians in Zanzibar pg 8
“We have an authentic record that in the end of the 17th Century, Imam Seif bin Sultan, the son of Imam Sultan bin Seif who in 1651 captured Muscat from the Portuguese, then sovereign Lord of East African Dominions known as “Caid el Ardh” who finally drove away the Portugues from the East Coast sought alliance with the Sultan of the Comoro Islands. The Sultan of the Comores at that time one Seyyid Ahmed bin Saleh answered by a letter exhibited at the Zanzibar Museum)”

At the time of Sultan Ahmed Said (1793 + 1875), there was a sultanates federation under the authority of a supreme leader: the thibe sultan. The federation included twelve provinces administered by a sultan. The Sultan Ahmed Said, the Sultanate of Bambao exercised suzerainty over five provincial sultanates and the Sultan rival, Moussa Foumou Sultanate Itsandra exercised his on three provincial sultanates. The provinces of BADJINI and DOMBA were autonomous

In A dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the London School of Economics 1982 where in page 14 my cousin Asya Turki was acknowledged by the writer as follow:- “In Nairobi I owe most to the help and hospitality of Saad Yahya and Assiah Turki”. Gillian Marie Shepherd – THE COMORIANS IN KENYA: THE ESTABLISHMENT AND LOSS OF AN ECONOMIC NICHE – Most details of her manuscript on Comorian employment are drawn from the published work of Ibuni Saleh, from the manuscript of Burhan Mkelle (both Zanzibar-born Comorians writing in the 1930s) and from the memories of Comorian informants about their fathers and grandfathers. Mkelle’s manuscript is invaluable since it contains over eighty thumbnail sketches of notable Comorians in Zanzibar and the positions they held, the writer goes on to say.

Comorians held various positions of importance in what was essentially Sultan Barghash’s highly personal Civil Service. There were clerks, working both as secretaries and translators; Matar bin Abdallah who, as the speaker of several European languages, was appointed to liaise between foreign consuls and the Palace; and Shaikh Kari ibn al Haj who was made Ra’is al Baladiya (Chief, Governor) of Zanzibar town, representing the townspeople to the Sultan and the Sultan to the townspeople. Sharif Mamboya also became a Court Chamberlain and acted as advisor to both Barghash and Lloyd Mathews (Mkelle, 1930: 5-6). Shaikh Kari was responsible, in part, for the arrival in Zanzibar of many more WaNgazija during Barghash’s reign, Comorians who had held positions of importance in the Palace or the Army continued to live and work in Zanzibar. Shaikh Khamis bin Sa’id, who had been Mathews’ adjutant since the 1870s, was appointed one of the four Arab Ministers at Court, and Shaikh Salim bin Azan, a Baluchi-Comorian, was another (Saleh, 1936: 2a). The Palace Treasurer and Paymaster, and the Chief of Security were also Comorian (Mkelle, 1930: 5-7, 22-23).32
Comorians with religious posts seem to have stayed in Zanzibar as well. Two Comorian walis were appointed; Shaikh Abdallah bin Wazir al-Ntsujini, an old friend of Sultan Ali bin Sa’id, became Mufti and also worked as adviser to Zanzibar’s wakf Council, and the reputation Comorians had for religious expertise must have been greatly enhanced by the presence of their compatriot Sayyid Ahmad Abu Bakr bin Sumait al-Alawi. East Africa’s most august scholar until his death in 1925, Sayyid Ahmad had returned to Zanzibar after studies in Istanbul in 1888, becoming first kadi and eventually Grand Mufti. His legal skills and his publications made him well-known throughout the muslim world (B.G. Martin, 1971: 541-544). http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/…/Shepherd_The_Comorians_in_Kenya_…

From the Anjouan history- their view of the Grande Comore and the sultans on the Comoros They saw the political tradition of the Grande-Comore to be the opposite of that of Anjouan, and typically feudal. http://www.anjouan.net/en_histoire.htm
(follow the link, then go all the way to the end read Differences with the Grande-Comore, which reveals exactly who the Fumu were, how they are all related, why the Anjouans nicknamed Comoro “island of fighters Sultans”)